1. Which organisation is competent for the recognition of foreign medical diplomas?
All foreign physicians who want to work in Germany as physicians must go to the competent Federal State authority to have their medical diplomas (medical training) recognised. In some Federal States there is only one medical license agency (Approbationsbehörde), whereas other Federal States have several medical license agencies (Approbationsbehörden) for different regions. But only one agency is relevant for the area where the physician wants to work (see list: Approbationsbehörden). [I posted this PDF document at the end of this post] [The number of german states is 16. However, the number of medical license agencies in this 2013 document is 23. Some states has more than one authority. For example, the German states Northrhine-Westphalia (17.6 million, 2012/ wikipedia article) has five authorites in the district governments of Arnsbergy, Detmold, Düsseldorf, Köln and Münster.].
Concerning the recognition of specialist qualifications only the State Chambers of Physicians (Landesärztekammern) are competent. The recognition of the specialist diploma is incumbent to the State Chamber of Physicians responsible for the area where the physician wants to work (see list: Ärztekammern).
The German medical license agencies (Approbationsbehörden) as of August 2013: